Monday, 11 August 2014


The outrigger kayak is a kind of kayak emphasizing one or more parallel help coasts known as outriggers, which are affixed to one or both sides of the primary body. More diminutive kayaks frequently utilize a solitary outrigger on the port side, while bigger kayaks may utilize a solitary outrigger, twofold outrigger, or twofold body design. The cruising kayaks are a paramount piece of the Polynesianheritage and are dashed and cruised in Hawaii, Tahiti, Samoa and by the Māori of New Zealand. Dissimilar to a solitary hulled kayak, an outrigger or twofold structure kayak creates soundness as a consequence of the separation between its bodies instead of because of the state of every individual body. Thusly, the bodies of outrigger or twofold frame kayaks are ordinarily more, narrower and morehydrodynamically effective than those of single-structure kayaks. Contrasted with different sorts of kayaks, outrigger kayaks might be quick, yet are additionally fit for being paddled and cruised in rougher water. This paddling procedure, be that as it may, varies significantly from kayaking or paddling. Thepaddle, or sharpened steel, utilized by the paddler is single sided, with either a straight or a twofold curve shaft. Notwithstanding the single oar, an accomplished paddler will just oar on one side, utilizing a strategy, for example, a J-stroke to keep up heading and strength.  

Friday, 22 February 2013


The oldest extant diaries come from Middle Eastern and East Asian cultures, although the even earlier work To Myself, written in Greek by the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius in the second half of the 2nd century AD, already displays many characteristics of a diary. Pillow books of Japanese court ladies and Asian travel journals offer some aspects of this genre of writing, although they rarely consist exclusively of diurnal records. The scholar Li Ao (9th century AD), for example, kept a diary of his journey through southern China.

In the medieval Near East, Arabic diaries were written from before the 10th century. The earliest surviving diary of this era which most resembles the modern diary was that of Ibn Banna in the 11th century. His diary is the earliest known to be arranged in order of date, very much like modern diaries.

The precursors of the diary in the modern sense include daily notes of medieval mystics, concerned mostly with inward emotions and outward events perceived as spiritually important .From the Renaissance on, some individuals wanted not only to record events, as in medieval chronicles and itineraries, but also to put down their own opinions and express their hopes and fears, without any intention to publish these notes.

One of the early preserved examples is the anonymous Journal d'un bourgeois de Paris that covers the years 1405-1449 giving subjective commentaries on the current events. Famous 14th- to 16th-century Renaissance examples, which appeared much later as books, were the diaries by the Florentines Buonaccorso Pitti and Gregorio Dati and the Venetian Marino Sanuto the Younger. Here we find records of even less important everyday occurrences together with much reflection, emotional experience and personal impressions. In 1908 the Smythson company created the first featherweight diary, enabling diaries to be carried about.

Wednesday, 1 August 2012


A diary is a record (originally in handwritten format) with discrete entries arranged by date reporting on what has happened over the course of a day or other period. A personal diary may include a person's experiences, and/or thoughts or feelings, including comment on current events outside the writer's direct experience. Someone who keeps a diary is known as a diarist. Diaries undertaken for institutional purposes play a role in many aspects of human civilization, including government records (e.g., Hansard), business ledgers and military records.

Generally the term is today employed for personal diaries, normally intended to remain private or to have a limited circulation amongst friends or relatives. The word "journal" may be sometimes used for "diary," but generally a diary has (or intends to have) daily entries, whereas journal-writing can be less frequent.
Whilst a diary may provide information for a memoir, autobiography or biography, it is generally written not with the intention of being published as it stands, but for the author's own use. In recent years, however, there is internal evidence in some diaries (e.g., those of Ned Rorem, Alan Clark, Tony Benn or Simon Gray) that they are written with eventual publication in mind, with the intention of self-vindication (pre- or posthumous) or simply for profit.

By extension the term diary is also used to mean a printed publication of a written diary; and may also refer to other terms of journal including electronic formats (e.g., blogs).

Monday, 22 August 2011


The leaves are spirally arranged on the shoots, but twisted at the base to lie in two flat ranks (except on erect leading shoots); they are linear, 4-12 cm long and 3-4 mm broad, soft in texture, with a blunt tip; this helps distinguish them from the related genus Torreya, which has spine-tipped leaves.
The species can be either monoecious or dioecious; when monoecious, the male and female cones are often on different branches. The male (pollen) cones are 5-8 mm long, grouped in lines along the underside of a shoot. The female (seed) cones are single or grouped 2-15 together on short stems; minute at first, they mature in about 18 months to a drupe-like structure with the single large nut-like seed 1.5-4 cm long surrounded by a fleshy covering, green to purple at full maturity. Natural dispersal is thought to be aided by squirrels which bury the seeds for a winter food source; any seeds left uneaten are then able to germinate.